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The only traditionally r -dropping or non-rhotic regional U. Non-rhoticity among such speakers is presumed to have arisen from their upper classes' close historical contact with England , imitating London's r -dropping, a feature that has continued to gain prestige throughout England from the late 18th century onwards, [] but which has conversely lost prestige in the U.

The most prominent and stigmatized regional accents of the country are New York City and Southern accents. Western U. Below, ten major American English accents are defined by their particular combinations of certain vowel sounds:.

In , William Labov noted that Great Lakes, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and West Coast accents have undergone "vigorous new sound changes" since the mid-nineteenth century onwards, so they "are now more different from each other than they were 50 or years ago", while other accents, like of New York City and Boston, have remained stable in that same time-frame.

Rather than one particular accent, General American is best defined as an umbrella covering any American accent that does not incorporate features associated with some particular region, ethnicity, or socioeconomic group. Typical General American features include rhoticity , the father—bother merger , Mary—marry—merry merger , pre-nasal "short a " tensing , and other particular vowel sounds.

Although no longer region-specific, [] African-American Vernacular English , which remains the native variety of most working- and middle-class African Americans , has a close relationship to Southern dialects and has greatly influenced everyday speech of many Americans, including hip hop culture. Hispanic and Latino Americans have also developed native-speaker varieties of English.

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American Indian Englishes have been documented among diverse Indian tribes. The island state of Hawaii , though primarily English-speaking, is also home to a creole language known commonly as Hawaiian Pidgin , and some Hawaii residents speak English with a Pidgin-influenced accent. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. English" redirects here. For the political organization, see U.

English organization. For other uses, see American English disambiguation. Set of dialects of the English language spoken in the United States.


Language family. Writing system. For the phonologies of regional American dialects, see North American English regional phonology. T -glottalization and flapping. Optional flapping in certain contexts. Alexander, answer, ant, band, can the noun , can't, clam, dance, ham, hamburger, hand, handy, man, manly, pants, plan, planning, ranch, sand, slant, tan, understand , etc. In Philadelphia, bad, mad, and glad alone in this set become tense. The horse-hoarse merger is assumed in all cases. Main article: American English vocabulary. Main article: Comparison of American and British English.

Glossary of American terms not widely used in the United Kingdom. Glossary of British terms not widely used in the United States. Works with different titles in the UK and US. New Mexico. Rhode Island.

English: History, Diversity and Change (English Language: Past, Present and Future)

Pacific Northwest. New Orleans. Upper Peninsula. United States portal Language portal.

Finally, most of the U. November 2, Retrieved January 2, Preston Word, 33 , English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. London: Profile Books. The Economist. July 20, Retrieved April 18, Retrieved May 29, Archived from the original on April 1, Retrieved May 13, Retrieved June 1, Dictionary of varieties of English.

Grammatical variation in national varieties of English — The corpus-based approach

Retrieved August 15, May 15, Introduction to English Linguistics. Walter de Gruyter. Retrieved July 4, Irish University Review. American English: Dialects and Variation. Schneider, Walter de Gruyter, , p. Cambridge: Cambridge University. Archived from the original on January 9, The Harvard Dialect Survey.


Walter de Gruyter GmbH. November 11, University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved September 21, The Atlas of North American English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Retrieved January 9, If you press the play button in the map, you can see changes over time. This reveals that, despite the great variation between countries, there is a common trend: Over the last couple of decades trade openness has gone up in most countries. Expressing trade values as a share of GDP tells us the importance of trade in relation to the size of economic activity.

The chart below shows the value of exports goods plus services in dollars, country by country. All estimates are expressed in constant dollars i. The main takeaway here are the country-specific trends, which are positive and more pronounced than in the charts showing shares of GDP. This is not surprising: most countries today produce more than a couple of decades ago ; and at the same time they trade more of what they produce. Here is the same chart, but showing imports rather than exports. Trade transactions include goods tangible products that are physically shipped across borders by road, rail, water, or air and services intangible commodities, such as tourism, financial services, and legal advice.

Many traded services make merchandise trade easier or cheaper—for example, shipping services, or insurance and financial services. Trade in goods has been happening for millenia ; while trade in services is a relatively recent phenomenon. Globally, trade in goods accounts for the majority of trade transactions. This interactive chart shows trade in services as share of GDP across countries and regions.

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Firms around the world import goods and services, in order to use them as inputs to produce goods and services that are later exported. That is, the share of the value of exports that comes from foreign inputs. Foreign value added in trade peaked in — after two decades of continuous increase. This is consistent with the fact that, after the global financial crisis, there has been a slowdown in the rate of growth of trade in goods and services, relative to global GDP. This is a sign that global integration stalled after the financial crisis.

The integration of global value chains is a common source of measurement error in trade data, because it makes it hard to correctly attribute the origin and destination of goods and services. We discuss this in more detail below. The following interactive chart from the Observatory for Economic Complexity OEC , at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, shows a breakdown of total world merchandise exports by product category, for You can visit the OEC website to see this composition country by country.

In this embedded interactive chart you can use the options at the bottom to change how the data is presented. If we consider all pairs of countries that engage in trade around the world, we find that in the majority of cases, there is a bilateral relationship today: Most countries that export goods to a country, also import goods from the same country.

The following interactive visualization shows this. In this chart, all possible country pairs are partitioned into three categories: the top portion represents the fraction of country pairs that do not trade with one-another; the middle portion represents those that trade in both directions they export to one-another ; and the bottom portion represents those that trade in one direction only one country imports from, but does not export to, the other country. As we can see, bilateral trade is becoming increasingly common the middle portion has grown substantially. As we can see, up until the Second World War the majority of trade transactions involved exchanges between this small group of rich countries.

But this has been changing quickly over the last couple of decades, and today trade between non-rich countries is just as important as trade between rich countries. Here is a stacked area chart showing the total composition of exports by partnership. The last few decades have not only seen an increase in the volume of international trade, but also an increase in the number of preferential trade agreements through which exchanges take place.

A preferential trade agreement is a trade pact that reduces tariffs between the participating countries for certain products. The following visualization shows the evolution of the cumulative number of preferential trade agreements that are in force across the world, according to the World Trade Organization WTO.

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These numbers include notified and non-notified preferential agreements the source reports that only about two-thirds of the agreements currently in force have been notified to the WTO , and are disaggregated by country groups. This figure shows the increasingly important role of trade between developing countries South-South trade , vis-a-vis trade between developed and developing countries North-South trade. In the late s, North-South agreements accounted for more than half of all agreements — in , they accounted for about one quarter.

Today, the majority of preferential trade agreements are between developing economies. The increase in trade among emerging economies over the last half century has been accompanied by an important change in the composition of exported goods in these countries.

Two points stand out. First, there has been a substantial decrease in the relative importance of food exports since s in most countries although globally in the last decade it has gone up slightly.