Example: Beethoven, Symphony No. Example: Chopin, Prelude in E minor, Op. Example: Haydn, Symphony No.
Example: Joplin, The Entertainer. Polyrhythmic - The simultaneous use of several rhythmic patterns or meters.
The five elements of music
Harmony — The simultaneous combination of notes and the ensuing relationships of intervals and chords. Texture —The interweaving of melodic horizontal and harmonic elements in the musical fabric. Example: Gregorian chant, "Kyrie eleison". Example: Mozart, Requiem , "Kyrie eleison". Form— The structure or shape of a musical work, based on repetition, contrast, and variation; the organizing principle of music. These meanings are interdependent and presume a tradition in which musical works exist as repeatable entities.
Elements of Musical Composition
In this sense, composition is necessarily distinct from improvisation. Whether referring to the process or to the completed work, composition implies the creation of a unique musical event that may or may not be based on original musical materials. At certain cultural levels and in many non-Western societies, unique performance characteristics tend to assume greater significance than composition itself. In oral traditions, related variants of common origin often take the place of unalterable musical entities, so that tune families rather than single autonomous tunes form the collective repertoire.
Where certain patterns of musical structure have gained broad recognition as the ragas, or melody types, of India , musicians will as a rule rework such patterns extemporaneously though in accordance with prevailing conventions. European music was communicated orally well into the Middle Ages and received important stimuli from a variety of oral traditions even after musical notation had developed to a high degree of precision. Indeed, the lower population strata, especially in rural areas, never abandoned the relative freedom that comes from reliance on the ear alone, and the sophisticated music of the upper strata, throughout its rapid evolution, rarely severed its connection with folk music altogether.
Ultimately, the process of composition, as seen by the American musicologist Alan P. Hence, the supreme authority in matters musical was the musicus as theorist; only he was considered sufficiently conversant with musical science to vouchsafe its continued existence as the sonorous embodiment of universal truths. And it was because the metaphysical properties of numbers were allegedly embedded in the rules of composition that music, on a par with arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy, attained and retained an honorable place as a constituent member of the quadrivium, the more exalted of the two divisions of the seven liberal arts.
About , musical composition as a mere craft was ranked by Johannes de Grocheo, a shrewd observer of the Parisian musical scene, with shoemaking and tanning. At its most fundamental level the act of composition involves the ordering of pitched sounds in musical time and space. Pitch relationships are referred to as intervals; their specific occurrence in musical time is determined by rhythm , a concept that embraces all durational aspects of music.
Rhythm in turn may or may not be regulated by metre. The study of composition has traditionally been dominated by examination of methods and practice of Western classical music, but the definition of composition is broad enough to include the creation of popular music and traditional music songs and instrumental pieces, and to include spontaneously improvised works like those of free jazz performers and African percussionists such as Ewe drummers.
Although in the s, composition is considered to consist of the manipulation of each aspect of music harmony , melody, form, rhythm , and timbre , according to Jean-Benjamin de Laborde , :. Composition consists in two things only. The first is the ordering and disposing of several sounds This is what the Ancients called melody. The second is the rendering audible of two or more simultaneous sounds in such a manner that their combination is pleasant. This is what we call harmony , and it alone merits the name of composition.
Since the invention of sound recording , a classical piece or popular song may exist as a recording. If music is composed before being performed, music can be performed from memory the norm for instrumental soloists in concerto performances and singers in opera shows and art song recitals , by reading written musical notation the norm in large ensembles, such as orchestras, concert bands and choirs , or through a combination of both methods. For example, the principal cello player in an orchestra may read most of the accompaniment parts in a symphony, where she is playing tutti parts, but then memorize an exposed solo, in order to be able to watch the conductor.
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Compositions comprise a huge variety of musical elements, which vary widely from between genres and cultures. Popular music genres after about make extensive use of electric and electronic instruments, such as electric guitar and electric bass. Electric and electronic instruments are used in contemporary classical music compositions and concerts, albeit to a lesser degree than in popular music. Music from the Baroque music era — , for example, used only acoustic and mechanical instruments such as strings, brass, woodwinds, timpani and keyboard instruments such as harpsichord and pipe organ.
A s-era pop band may use electric guitar played with electronic effects through a guitar amplifier , a digital synthesizer keyboard and electronic drums. Piece is a "general, non-technical term [that began to be] applied mainly to instrumental compositions from the 17th century onwards In vocal music These techniques [ clarification needed ] draw parallels from visual art's formal elements. Sometimes, the entire form of a piece is through-composed , meaning that each part is different, with no repetition of sections; other forms include strophic , rondo , verse-chorus , and others.
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Some pieces are composed around a set scale , where the compositional technique might be considered the usage of a particular scale. Others are composed during performance see improvisation , where a variety of techniques are also sometimes used. Some are used from particular songs which are familiar. The scale for the notes used, including the mode and tonic note, is important in tonal musical composition. Similarly, music of the Middle East employs compositions that are rigidly based on a specific mode maqam often within improvisational contexts , as does Indian classical music in both the Hindustani and the Carnatic system.
In the music tradition of India there are many forms of musical composition. To some degree this is on account of there being many musical styles prevalent in different regions of the country, such as Hindustani music , Carnatic music , Bengali music , and so forth. Another important influence in composition is its link with folk music , both indigenous and also from musical culture of Arabia , Persia , and Bengal.
In the Hindustani musical tradition, Drupad originally in Sanskrit and later adaptations in Hindi and Braj Bhasha is among one of the ancient compositions and had formed the base for other forms in this music tradition such as khyal , thumri and raga. In the Karnatak music tradition the compositions are in the form of Kriti , varanam and padam. As technology has developed in the 20th and 21st century, new methods of music composition have come about. EEG headsets have also been used to create music by interpreting the brainwaves of musicians.
The task of adapting a composition for different musical ensembles is called arranging or orchestration , may be undertaken by the composer or separately by an arranger based on the composer's core composition. In the s, the contemporary composer can virtually write for almost any combination of instruments, ranging from a string section , wind and brass sections used in standard orchestras to electronic instruments such as synthesizers.
Some common group settings include music for full orchestra consisting of strings, woodwinds, brass and percussion , concert band which consists of larger sections and greater diversity of woodwind, brass, and percussion instruments than are usually found in the orchestra , or a chamber group a small number of instruments, but at least two.
The composer may also choose to write for only one instrument, in which case this is called a solo. Solos may be unaccompanied, as with works for solo piano or solo cello, or solos may be accompanied by another instrument or by an ensemble.
Elements of Musical Composition - William Crotch, Bernarr Rainbow - Google книги
Composers are not limited to writing only for instruments, they may also decide to write for voice including choral works, some symphonies e. Composers can also write for percussion instruments or electronic instruments. She gives an example of how in an earlier composition of hers, she had the tuba playing with the piccolo.